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Figure 1. Cross-section of a Kalapuya brunnea fruiting body showing mottled gleba (left) and dark warted peridium. [Image courtesy of Gregory Bonito]

In the "1KFG: Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya" project (CSP1974), we aim to sequence additional sampling of genomic diversity within keystone lineages of plant-interacting fungi and saprophytic fungi that are of special ecological importance for understanding terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, comparative genome analysis with saprotrophic, mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi will provide new insights into the specific and conserved adaptations associated with each fungal lifestyle.

Within the framework of the “1000 Fungal Genomes”, we present the genome of Kalapuya brunnea (M. Trappe, Trappe, & Bonito) which is one of four genera of truffles in the Morchellaceae. Kalapuya brunnea was described from Oregon, where it is found in association with Douglas-fir trees (Trappe et al. 2010). Currently a monotypic genus, Kalapuya was named to honor the native American tribe whose ancestral lands encompassed the range of this genus, from the western foothills of the Cascade Range to Coastal Range, while brunnea refers to the brownish peridium.

K. brunnea is presumed to be ectomycorrhizal, since it is always found in association with Douglas-fir trees and is not readily isolated in pure culture. However, ectomycorrhizas of this species have still have never been produced, nor reported from the wild. Although not collected in abundance, in the Pacific Northwest K. brunnea is commercially harvested from Douglas-fir forests. Fruiting bodies are produced underground and have a brownish colored peridium, ornamented with polyhedral warts covering most of its surface. The gleba is solid, firm, whitish to yellowish gray, with grayish mottling of fertile pockets surrounded by whitish sterile, undifferentiated veins (Fig. 1). Ascopores are ellipsoid in form and have a smooth surface. Benucci and Bonito (2016) reported that K. brunnea fruiting bodies harbor bacteria belonging to Flavobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Rhizobium. Freshly collected K. brunnea truffles have a complex and distinctive aroma, mildly garlicky-cheesy, and reminiscent of mature Camembert (Trappe et al. 2010).

As no isolates of this species are known to exist, we generated a metagenome of K. brunnea from fresh gleba tissue from a fruiting body that was collected in Oregon. The metagenome of K. brunnea will be used to understand the evolution of truffle fruiting body formation in the Morchellaceae, to address the ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic genomic capacity of K. brunnea, and to better understand the potential function(s) of bacteria living within truffle fruiting bodies.

Researchers who wish to publish analyses using data from unpublished CSP genomes are respectfully required to contact the PI and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the CSP master paper(s).


Trappe M, Trappe J, Bonito G. (2010) Kalapuya brunnea gen. & sp. nov. and its relationship to the other sequestrate genera in Morchellaceae. Mycologia 101: (5) 1058-1065.
Benucci GMN, Bonito G. (2016) The truffle microbiome: Species and geography effects on bacteria associated with fruiting bodies of hypogeous Pezizales. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 72:4-8. doi: 10.1007/s00248-016-0755-3.