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Lactarius deliciosus
Fruiting bodies of Lactarius deliciosus (Col de Portes, Gard, France, scale bar: 10 mm). Image credit: Alexis Guerin-Laguette (The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research) and Daniel Mousain (France).

This genome was sequenced as part of the JGI CSP "1KFG - Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya" and more specifically as a part of the Russulaceae Sequencing Project, which seeks to densely sample members of a diverse lineage of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi to examine functional diversity of ECM fungi with a shared evolutionary history.

Lactarius deliciosus 48

Lactarius deliciosus (L.:Fr.) S.F. Gray, type species of Lactarius sect. Deliciosi, commonly known as the saffron milk cap and red pine mushroom, is one of the best known members of the large milk-cap genus Lactarius in the order Russulales, family Russulaceae. It has a carrot orange cap with a smooth and slightly viscid surface where darker spots and marked concentric zones often occur. The cap and the gills can turn greenish with age or when damaged. The pileus is convex with an inrolled margin and a slightly depressed center when young. It has crowded, slightly decurrent orange gills and a squat orange stipe which is often hollow. The stipe surface often shows characteristic orange dimples or “scrobicules”. The flesh is whitish, dyeing orange by the milk. Lactarius deliciosus is widely distributed in European and Asian pine forests. Genome sequencing and comparative study with other ectomycorrhizal clades in and out of Russulaceae would gain insights into its specific genomic and evolutionary features within Russulaceae, and also help understand the general genetic features shared by various ectomycorrhizal lineages. The strain 48 used for sequencing was isolated originally from a pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest in the Alps mountains established on a brown calcic soil in the Hautes-Alpes department (Col des Manges, Le Devoluy city, at 1,530 m elevation) in September 2005.

Biological material production: Dr. Nianwu TANG (KIB, Kunming).

Researchers who wish to publish analyses using data from unpublished CSP genomes are respectfully required to contact the PI (Francis Martin) and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the CSP master paper(s).


Nuytinck J, Verbeken A. Morphology and taxonomy of the European species in Lactarius sect. Deliciosi (Russulales). Mycotaxon, 2005.

Nuytinck J, Wang X H, Verbeken A. Descriptions and taxonomy of the Asian representatives of Lactarius sect. Deliciosi. Fungal Diversity, 2006.

Genome Reference(s)