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Lactifluus volemus
Lactifluus cf. volemus (actual genome source) by Brian P. Looney

This genome was sequenced as part of the JGI CSP "1KFG - Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya"and more specifically as a part of the Russulaceae Sequencing Project, which seeks to densely sample members of a diverse lineage of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi to examine functional diversity of ECM fungi with a shared evolutionary history.

Lactifluus cf. volemus (Fr.) Kuntze - The Weeping Milk Cap

Lactifluus volemus is the type species of the genus Lactifluus, with a tawny to reddish-brown, velvety cap, whose flesh is compact and turns from yellowish to brown on exposure, producing copious white latex that turns brown with age, and having a strong fishy odor. Though L. volemus is frequently reported from North America, it is likely endemic to Europe with all North American samples representing different species (Van de Putte 2016). This particular species is part of a clade that is sister to Lactifluus subvolemus and will need to be described as a new species. Lactifluus sect. Lactifluus to which this and similar species belong is only known from North America, Europe, and Asia (De Crop et al. 2017). Members of this group are known to associate with Fagaceae and Pinaceae, and multiple species are frequently found in the same geographic locality (Van de Putte et al. 2016). The L. volemus group is known as an important edible mushroom in many parts of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia (Khaund & Joshi 2013). To this end this group has been successfully cultured and used in cultivation of mushrooms with mature pine trees in China (Liu et al. 2009). Novel compounds including a sterol derivative named volemolide have been isolated from fruitbodies of L. volemus (Kobata et al. 1994). Lactifluus volemus is also a natural source of rubber, which it produces in its latex (Mooibroek & Cornish 2000). The sporocarps for this genome were collected on June 27, 2015 in a mixed forest with mainly Tsuga canadensis, Fagus grandifolia, and multiple species of Quercus in the Cosby area of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. This species is a representative of an important and well-studied group of species representing the sister lineage to the rest of Lactifluus and will be important for understanding the evolution of functional diversity of Russulaceae.

Researchers who wish to publish analyses using data from unpublished CSP genomes are respectfully required to contact the PI and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the CSP master paper(s).

References

De Crop, E., Nuytinck, J., Van de Putte, K., Wisitrassameewong, K., Hackel, J., Stubbe, D., Hyde, K.D., Roy, M., Halling, R.E., Moreau, P.A. and Eberhardt, U., 2017. A multi-gene phylogeny of Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) translated into a new infrageneric classification of the genus. Persoonia, 38, pp.58-80.

Mooibroek, H. and Cornish, K., 2000. Alternative sources of natural rubber. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 53(4), pp.355-365.

Liu, P.G., Yu, F.Q., Wang, X.H., Zheng, H.D., Chen, J., Chen, J.Y., Tian, X.F., Xie, X.D., Shi, X.F. and Deng, X.J., 2009. The cultivation of Lactarius volemus in China. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 16, pp.15-16.

Khaund, P. and Joshi, S.R., 2013. Wild edible macrofungal species consumed by the Khasi tribe of Meghalaya, India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 4(2), pp.197-204.

Kobata, K., Wada, T., Hayashi, Y. and Shibata, H., 1994. Volemolide, a novel norsterol from the fungus Lactarius volemus. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 58(8), pp.1542-1544.

Van de Putte, K., Nuytinck, J., De Crop, E. and Verbeken, A., 2016. Lactifluus volemus in Europe: Three species in one - Revealed by a multilocus genealogical approach, Bayesian species delimitation and morphology. Fungal biology, 120(1), pp.1-25.