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Mycena sanguinolenta
The actual collection that has been cultured and subsequently sequenced. Photo credit: Christoffer Bugge Harder and Thomas Læssøe.

The genome of Mycena sanguinolenta was sequenced as part of the Mycenaceae sequencing project and the overarching JGI 1000 Fungal Genomes project “Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya“ (CSP 1974). This project will examine members of the Mycena genus to evaluate the genomic basis of their different nutritional modes.

The (lesser) bleeding bonnet, Mycena sanguinolenta

M. sanguinolenta is a member of the Sanguinolentae section of the Mycena family (Maas Geesteranus 1988). The collection for the sequenced culture was collected in Denmark (Bromme Plantage, W Zealand) the 28th of October 2015 on Picea abies litter. M. sanguinolenta is fairly common and has been reported from all over Europe, North America, Asia and Australia (Smith 1947, Maas Geesteranus 1988, Young 2005, Robich 2016, Aronsen & Læssøe 2016).

Pileus 5-18 mm across conical, campanulate, convex, flattening to applanate with age, sometimes with recurved margin, often papillate or umbonate, but even sometimes somewhat depressed centrally, sulcate, translucent-striate, very pale brown to grey brown with dark reddish brown centre, dark brown to pinkish beige at the centre, pale brown to brown-violet towards the margin. Lamellae 13-17 reaching the stipe, ascending, narrowly adnate, decurrent with a short tooth, white or greyish, the edge vinaceous red or red brown. Stipe 30-60 x 0.5-1.5 mm, hollow, terete, straight to curved, equal or somewhat widened below, minutely puberulous at the apex, glabrous farther down, beige brown to brown with a vinaceous or violet tinge, the base densely covered with white fibrils. With red to sometimes colourless fluid. Odour indistinctive.

We expect the genomic architecture of a highly adaptable generalist species such as M. sanguinolenta to reveal a large set of genes related to degradation of a broad range of substrates. Its close (and also red/orange exudate-containing (”bleeding”)) relatives, M. haematopus and M. crocata, have a narrower range of substrates, where the former is restricted to hardwood and the latter almost exclusively specialises on beech (Fagus sylvatica), and we hope to be able to trace the evolutionary history that is linked to this gradual specialisation. Furthermore, the comparison with other broad Mycena generalists such as M. pura or M. epipterygia, which are more distantly related to M. sanguinolenta than M. haematopus and M. crocata, will provide information about possible convergent evolutionary pathways to an ecologically similar lifestyle.

This genome was derived from monokaryotic (haploid) pure culture on MEA agar with ampicilin and benomyl and should be free of xenobiotic contaminations. Researchers who wish to use data from unpublished Mycena genomes for publication are respectfully required to contact the PI and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the Mycena master paper(s).


Aronsen, A.; Læssøe, T.: The genus Mycena s.l. in The Fungi of Northern Europe, vol. 5. Copenhagen, 373 p (2016).

Maas Geesteranus, R. A. (1988): Conspectus of the Mycenas of the Northern Hemisphere. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. v. Wetensch. (Ser. C).

Robich, G: Mycena d'Europa vol. 2. Centro Studi Micologici. A.M.B, Trento, p. 733-1528 (2016)

Smith AH. (1947). North American species of Mycena. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Young AM. (2005). A Field Guide to the Fungi of Australia. Sydney, Australia: UNSW Press. pp. 160–61. ISBN 0-86840-742-9.