Home • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis GMS-stained tissue section
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis GMS-stained tissue section.
Image Credit: R Summerbell/ J Scott

The genome and gene models of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18 were downloaded from NCBI on Oct 21, 2016. JGI tools were used to add functional annotations to the gene models. Please note that this copy of the genome is not maintained by NCBI and is therefore not automatically updated. In order to allow comparative analyses with other fungal genomes sequenced by the JGI, a copy of this genome is incorporated into Mycocosm.

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus and the causative agent of the disease paracoccidioidomycosis. Being a dimorphic fungus, it has the ability to grow an oval yeast-like form at 37°C and an elongated mycelial form produced at room temperature. The mycelial and yeast phases differ in their morphology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure. The yeast form contains large amounts of α-(1,3)-linked glucan. The chitin content of the mycelial form is greater than that of the yeast form, but the lipid content of both phases is comparable.
Although the habitat of P. brasiliensis remains unknown, it is commonly associated with soils in which coffee is cultivated. The disease caused by P. brasiliensis is mostly geographically restricted to Latin American countries such as Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela, with the greatest number of cases seen in Brazil. The endemic areas are characterized by hot, humid summers, dry temperate winters, average annual temperatures between 17 and 23°C, and annual rainfall between 500 and 800 mm. However, the precise ecology regularities of the fungus remain elusive, and P. brasiliensis has rarely been encountered in nature outside the human host.
Paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by slow, progressive granulomatous changes in the head mucosa, notably the nose and sinuses or the skin. Uncommonly, the disease affects the lymphatic system, the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, or the skeletal system. Due to the high proportion of cases affecting the oral mucosa, these tissues were originally thought to be the primary route of entry of fungus. However, strong evidence now indicates the respiratory tract is the chief point of entry.

Genome Reference(s)