Home • Penicillium citreonigrum cont 1189274 v1.0
Photo of Penicillium citreonigrum cont 1189274 v1.0
Monoverticillate penicillus (brush-like head) of Penicillum citreonigrum. February 1993 [Image credit: CC BY-NC 3.0 by Gerald Holmes, California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, Bugwood.org via invasive.org]

This genome was sequenced as part of the JGI CSP "1000 Fungal Genomes – Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya" project. Within the framework of this project, we are sequencing keystone lineages of saprophytic, mycorrhizal, and endophytic fungi that are of special ecological importance. Dozens of sequenced species were harvested from Long Term Observatories to serve as the foundation for a reference database for metagenomics of fungi and for a comprehensive survey of the soil fungal metatranscriptome.

Penicillium citreonigrum produces the mycotoxin citreoviridin, associated with beriberi or "yellow rice" disease when rice contaminated after harvest is consumed.

This project was originally conceived around a sample of a Cerinomyces crustulinus OMC1686 isolate but sequencing data suggested that the sample was heavily contaminated with this Penicillium species. This contamination is believed to have originated in the lab spaces at the University of Helsinki, where various fungal strains from around Northern Hemisphere are routinely cultured. Little to no Cerinomyces was assembled with the exception of mitochondria and ribosomal content. Assembled Cerinomyces was removed from the assembly and the contaminant organism was released as a metagenome assembled genome. Similarly, the RNA library was contaminated and only genome-mapping reads were used for transcriptome assembly.

The 1KFG project is a large collaborative effort aiming for master publication(s). Please do contact the PI for 1KFG - Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya (Dr. Francis Martin) for permission prior to the use of any data in publications.


  1. Mariana Wagner da Rocha, Inês Sabioni Resck & Eloisa Dutra Caldas (2015) Purification and full characterisation of citreoviridin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 32:4, 584-595, DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.961177
  2. Masayo Kushiro (2015) Historical review of researches on yellow rice and mycotoxigenic fungi adherent to rice in Japan, マイコトキシン, 65 巻, 1 号, p. 19-23, 公開日 2015/04/22, Online ISSN 1881-0128, Print ISSN 0285-1466, DOI: 10.2520/myco.65.19