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Russula vinacea
Russula vinacea (actual genome source) by Brian P. Looney

This genome was sequenced as part of the JGI CSP "1KFG - Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya" and more specifically as a part of the Russulaceae Sequencing Project, which seeks to densely sample members of a diverse lineage of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi to examine functional diversity of ECM fungi with a shared evolutionary history.

Russula vinacea Burl. -- The Blackish-Red Russula

Russula vinacea is a widespread and common species occurring in temperate forests of eastern North America. It is characterized by a vinaceous red to purple cap, usually with a darker disc, white to pale cream spore print, acrid taste, and a stem that turns greyish in age. The species was previously considered as a synonym of Russula bresadolae Schulzer (commonly misnamed as Russula atropurpurea (Krombh.) Britz. nom. illeg and Russula krombholzii Shaffer), a European species mycorrhizal with oak and beech trees, however sequence data supports the validity of R. vinacea as a distinct North American species of Russula subgenus Russula (Looney 2015). Russula bresadolae has been analyzed for its ability to sequester heavy metals, particularly zinc which is stoichiometrically bound by metallothionein-like binding peptides (Leonhardt et al. 2014). Morrison et al. (2016) highlights R. vinacea as a nitrophilic species that became the dominant fungal species with long-term nitrogen addition in an eastern North American experimental hardwood forest. The sporocarps for this genome were collected on July 17, 2015 in a mixed forest with mainly Tsuga canadensis, Carpinus caroliniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, and multiple species of Quercus and Carya in the Elkmont/Sugarlands area of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. This species is a representative of the type subgenus of Russula and will be important for understanding the evolution of functional diversity of Russulaceae.

Researchers who wish to publish analyses using data from unpublished CSP genomes are respectfully required to contact the PI and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the CSP master paper(s).


Leonhardt, T., Sácký, J., Šimek, P., Šantrůček, J. and Kotrba, P., 2014. Metallothionein-like peptides involved in sequestration of Zn in the Zn-accumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Russula atropurpurea. Metallomics 6(9), pp.1693-1701.

Looney, B.P., 2015. Molecular annotation of type specimens of Russula species described by WA Murrill from the southeast United States. Mycotaxon 129(2), pp.255-268.

Morrison, E.W., Frey, S.D., Sadowsky, J.J., van Diepen, L.T., Thomas, W.K. and Pringle, A., 2016. Chronic nitrogen additions fundamentally restructure the soil fungal community in a temperate forest. Fungal Ecology 23, pp.48-57.

Genome Reference(s)