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Home • Epicoccum nigrum cont 1108929 v1.0
Epicoccum nigrum growing on the puffball mushroom Lycoperdon pyriforme.
Epicoccum nigrum growing on the puffball mushroom Lycoperdon pyriforme. Specimen collected in Trumbull County, Ohio.
Image Credit: walt sturgeon (Mycowalt) from Mushroom Observer used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

This genome was sequenced as part of the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project - Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya. Within the framework of this project, we are sequencing keystone lineages of saprophytic, mycorrhizal, and endophytic fungi that are of special ecological importance. Dozens of sequenced species were harvested from Long Term Observatories to serve as the foundation for a reference database for metagenomics of fungi and for a comprehensive survey of the soil fungal metatranscriptome. Within this project we originally planned to sequence the fungus Clitopilus paseckianus, but sequencing data suggested that the sample was heavily contaminated with this Epicoccum species. This contamination is believed to have originated in the original culture. Little to no Clitopilus was assembled and its reads have been removed from the assembly. The contaminant organism was released as a metagenome assembled genome. Similarly, the RNA library was contaminated and only Epicoccum genome-mapping reads were used for transcriptome assembly.

Epicoccum nigrum is a robust and ubiquitous mycoparasite, plant pathogen and endophyte found in the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Epicoccum nigrum produces a variety of biomedically and industrially useful metabolites, including important antifungal agents and pigments, including: flavipin, epicorazines A and B, epirodin, epicocconone, and a variety of carotenoid pigments. Epicoccum nigrum has also been utilized in the biosynthetic manufacture of silver- and gold nanoparticles.

Epicoccum nigrum has no known teleomorph and forms blastoconidia that are darkly coloured, warted and spherical, reaching 15 to 25 µm in diameter. Conidia grow on a sporodochium, formed by warty and fibrous hyphae. Sporets have been found to contain up to 15 cells. The spores of E. nigrum are actively released depending on temperature, light, and relative humidity conditions. The mechanism of release involves the separation of the conidium from the sporodochium via a double septum. It capitalizes on the spherical shape of the conidia, allowing it to "bounce" off the sporodochium. Conidia then become airborne with movement or wind. Sporulation is induced under Wood's light, or sometimes upon exposure to cold temperatures with a subsequent return to room temperature. Pigment production is also sensitive to light and temperature changes.

Researchers who wish to publish analyses using data from unpublished CSP genomes are respectfully required to contact the PI and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the CSP master paper(s).